For example, the fragile X symptoms (associated to autism) in mice are lower by delivering an enzyme using gold nanoparticles which alters the DNA of a receptor responsible for autism in mice. These asexual spores are usually produced when ambient environment conditions are favourable via mitosis. This type of reproductive technology was used by the well-known scientist and monk, Gregor Mendel in his pea plants experiments – which helped create modern laws of genetic inheritance. Secondly, the unique ethical responsibilities of stakeholders are required to be addressed and communicated globally. read other testimonials . Other than that check out conquer HSC website (I don't have familiarity with the biology since I never did it but I can tell you the Chem ones are high quality so the biology is probably similarly high quality). The change in the population of white and brown rabbits over time can be predicted using Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. 2 marks = Describe how cloning decreases a population’s genetic variation. Understand the structure of Years 11 and 12 – Preliminary followed by the HSC 2. The majority of the existing population would have the favourable traits that allow them to survive in the environmental conditions (temperature, food supply, predators, etc) that they are exposed to. For plant cloning, it involves cutting a section of the mother plant’s which contains at least one stem cell. A selected female’s egg cell fusing with a selected male’s sperm cell. Each chromosome moves to each side of the cell. Until 1982, the only method to obtain insulin was from beef meaning that the insulin was scarce quantities. HSC 2002, Q26. The use of HTS technique to test different therapeutic proteins to cure different medical conditions. The insertion of human gene that specify the production of insulin into a bacteria (thus making the bacteria a transgenic species) for replication, scientists are able to produce insulin at a large scale by the bacteria to treat patients suffering from diabetes and saved many lives. Under favourable conditions, the diploid zygospore undergoes meiosis to produce haploid sexual spores which are dispersed into the environment. As a result, the modified organism’s offspring would have the favourable traits that was manipulated by the scientists. This occurs in starfish where a part of its body can be separated from its parent and the separated section can develop into a new starfish that is genetically identical to parent starfish via cell division. The term Biology comes from two Greek words (bios means life and logos means knowledge). The smart way to prepare for your HSC. Historically, biotechnology was focused on selective breeding process which involved selecting parents with favourable traits to produce offspring that is similar high quality  & abandoning offspring with traits that are not/less favourable. Our extensive library of handy and helpful HSC Biology resources including past papers with worked solutions, study guides, study notes, essays written by students, assignments and many more, to help you prepare for the HSC Extension Question #1: Discuss the ethical issues that may arise when using employing reproductive technologies in supporting the continuity of species. HSC 2004, Q27 There are two types of cells: somatic and non-somatic (sex) cells. However, they are uncommon. The future of medical biotechnology holds the advancements in gene therapy which is currently in its infancy. These spores that are genetically different from their parents. 2. Holly Berton “thank you for all the great HSC support! Many genetically identical flowers can be produced via cloning. ConquerHSC Jun 5, 2019 As an after-work hobby, I'm on a mission to support HSC Chemistry, Biology and Physics students in achieving their maximum potential. The effects of deforestation and soil erosion extends beyond destroying the habitats and ecosystems of species that reside in the forest/rainforest. His experimental results led to his proposal of the three major laws of inheritance being – dominance, independent assortment and random segregation, officially marking the birth of genetics studies. Of course, there is a limit. Whether the offspring is genetically identical or different, it will depend of whether the single parent plant is homozygous or heterozygous for those genes. HSC Biology Syllabus Notes - Module 6 - Inquiry Question 2. External fertilisation tends to occur between aquatic animals. During reproduction, the parents’ genetic information (DNA) is copied and passed onto the offspring. • Internal fertilisation occurs inside the female’s body which means that the zygote is protected from the external environment of the parent. Left out good quality embryos can be frozen and stored. This increases the survival of the zygote. If performed on land, the egg will dry out. Haploid cells are cells that have half the amount of chromosome as parent. • Internal fertilisation generally required more energy in search for a mating partner and perform the mating process which are unnecessary in external fertilisation. As females are born with a lifetime limited supply of oocytes, their age may be a cause of infertility. <3 This is the bulk of the HSC Chemistry exam paper – 80 marks, so allow more than two hours. The cutting is then planted in the same environment as the mother plant to allow the cutting to develop the same characteristics as the mother plant, producing the same yield with the same harvest time. This is because no new allele combinations are created. HSC 2014, Q26. An asexual offspring is a clone of its parent. The splitting of the parent cell into two daughter cells is called cytokinesis. • Internal fertilisation is NOT restricted to terrestrial environments unlike external fertilisation which is restricted to aquatic environments only. The offspring as a result of sexual reproduction does not have genetic material that is identical to its parents. Don’t worry if you don’t know what genes and alleles are, we will look into their definitions and role in genetics in Week 2. Aristotle is regarded as the father of Biology. Favourable characteristics are adaptations that allow an organism to effectively tolerate the selective pressures in its ambient environment. Male salmon produce gametes (Sperm) to fertilise a nest of eggs that is produced by female salmon somewhere in the ocean. Ecosystem Diversity â€“ refers to the total variety of ecosystems (habitats) and the abiotic components interacting within an ecosystem (e.g. mrsprivatecenter. Be goal orient… The zygote therefore has a lower chance of survival via external fertilisation. Furthermore, it is important to ensure transparent global communication pertaining to existing and new developments in the codes of ethical conduct. Internal fertilisation tends to occur between terrestrial animals. Currently, therapeutic proteins is a growing medical biotechnology area as HTS techniques are currently being used to automate the process to explore different therapeutic proteins to cure conditions such as asthma and muscular dystrophy. For HSC purposes, an organism CANNOT adapt to its environment during its lifetime. Now that we have explored asexual and sexual reproduction with examples, let’s see what they involve beyond differences between number of parents involved and genetic variation in offspring that we have mentioned at the beginning of this notes. Trial us for free today! Thus by adding antibiotics in the culture environment, it ensures all surviving (old and new) bacteria carry the desired gene. Leopard) for a rabbit population. Thus, the genetic diversity (and biodiversity) is critical to the continuity of the species as we have already explored in detail in Module 5 Notes. This is common for organisms residing in harsh or extreme environments. 4. Hence, all forms of mass selective breeding is equally risky if consequences are not evaluated. Aquacultures used to culture aquatic organisms facilitates the discovery of genes that produce new transgenic species that would be beneficial for medical biotechnology (i.e. We need to classify reproductive processes as sexual or asexual on top of how their mechanisms that allow parent(s) producing and passing genetic materials onto their offsprings. Fragmentation is when the original organism separates a small part of itself. This is followed by the elongation of the cell and cytokinesis which is the splitting of the cell membrane and cytoplasm of the cell into two daughter cells. HSC biology. That being said, there are arguments in favour of applying gene therapy to germ-line cells to remove health disparities between people of different ethnicities. This is because the sperm cell of a selected male can be frozen and transported to another country, ready to be fused with a selected female’s egg cell. Imagine producing offsprings from the same selected male and female over and over again. Well done! We have discussed potential benefits of research using several genetic technologies for society already. However, during this time, the placenta will provide the pathway in which carbon dioxide and urea can be eliminated from the foetus into the endometrium via diffusion and secreted out of the mother’s body. Budding is also found in another type of organism called Hydras and the budding process is similar to that of fungi. This implantation process onto the walls establishes blastocyst’s access to nutrients to develop into an embryo (blood vessels surrounding the blastocyst carries blood which has dissolved nutrients), Embyro develops into a fetus (approx 5-11 weeks). The offspring’s genetic material is stored in their cells’ nucleus. the continuity of species. Genetic variation increases the likelihood of the continuity and evolution of the species – relating back to inquiry question. Anyways, successful transfer results in pollination and fertilisation of the egg cell, producing a seed. Evolution is the change in living organism’s genetic information, favourable characteristics and phenotypes (appearance or physical traits) over many generations. Pesticides are also toxic to fish as it can reduce the fish’s ability to regulate its internal temperature which can affect enzymes’ ability to catalyse necessary metabolic processes like cellular respiration to sustain life.

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